Climate Change & Environment > Projects
Review of Status of Marine National Park, Jamnagar and Evolving a vision statement for Management of MNP
The Marine National Park & Sanctuary (MNP&S) in the Gulf of Kachchh supports a variety of marine biodiversity due to availability of a diversity of habitats viz. coral reefs, mangrove forests, sandy beaches, mudflats, creeks, rocky coast, seagrass beds, etc. However, this region has also been extensively exploited for human developmental activities due to strategic location and importance of Gulf. Salt works, thermal power station, fertilizer plant, cement manufacturing unit, offshore oil terminal, soda ash industry, ship breaking yard, ports, jetties – all influence the area overlapping with the limits of MNP&S. In addition, Jamnagar district has medium and large scale industrial units involved in production of solvents, edible oils, cement, yarn, agriculture equipment, soda ash, salt, and fertilizers. Thus, MNP and other associated ecosystems are facing immense pressure due to industrialization, urbanization, tourism, shipping related activities and salt pans. The industrial activities coupled with traditional harvesting of flora and fauna from the realms of MNP&S puts severe constraints on the sustenance and survival of this eco-region. The assessment of pros and cons of this kind of co-existence of ecological and economic hotspots is essential in order to analyse/know-
- Whether the sole objective of MNP&S’s establishment is fulfilled despite the fact that there has been a mounting growth in industrial activities in the vicinity of the park?
- The advantages of establishing an exclusive Marine National Park.
- How the industries and other stakeholders handled the MNP&S/ How the MNP and other stakeholders (e.g. industries) survived together?
- What has been the role of government in conservation and management of the MNP since its establishment in 1980-82?
This study aims at answering the above points by presenting:
- the ecological status (biodiversity) of MNP&S before and after its establishment.
- a macro view of the industries’ and stakeholders’ impact on MNP.
- a vision statement for sustainable and workable management for healthy co-existence of MNP and economic hotspots.
GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit
Workshop Series in Indian Universities on Framing the Debate on Climate Change
Supported by -U.S. Embassy, New Delhi
Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential, Sectoral Base Lines and Opportunities for Clean Development Mechanism
IRADe examined the methodology of ‘Baselines for Renewable Energy Projects under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)’ in the power sector for India. The study found that India’s power sector has considerable scope for improvement in transmission and distribution (T&D) losses. The suggested short-term and long-term measures to reduce these include installation of appropriate conductors, capacitors, reconfiguration of the network, upgradation to high-voltage transmission, etc. The project also analysed opportunities in the cement sector, co-generation schemes, wind power and hotel industry and other sectors for defining baselines. It studied the approaches to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and policies towards CDM followed by these industries.
Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Government of India
Mapping of Carbon Capture and Storage Activities in India to Promote Research and Development Initiatives
IRADe conducted a review of technological status of CCS globally and surveyed perceptions of the scientific and technical manpower employed in India. The various elements of costs of CCS, carbon capture, transport of carbon dioxide and storage were examined. It was felt that till the economics of CCS is demonstrated by plants in industrialized countries, India should not adopt CCS. However, there may be scope for designing plants to be CCS ready and to pursue research and development in CCS. Perhaps an international research and development centre may be established in India. The outcome of the project is that India has to continue with basic research on CCS with a larger range of technology options and progress to applied research in selected fields. Indian entrepreneurs should be able to gain business opportunities at a later date when commercialization of CCS technology becomes viable.
British High Commission and Government of UK
Low Carbon Technologies (LCT) Implementation and Policy Issues (2009):
This study analyzes Low Carbon Technologies in power, steel, cement and transportation sectors. The analysis for cement and steel sectors identified a range of potential mitigation options. A comprehensive roadmap for implementing each policy option was provided including the identification of the key factors that would be involved, the key barriers to policy implementation, and major associated co-benefits. International policies that supplement the suggested domestic policy options have also been described, along with the implications for the structure of international climate policies.
Centre for Clean Air Policy (CCAP), USA
Climate Change and Himalayan Ecosystem – Uttarakhand
IRADe examined how agriculture, water and forests will be affected by climate change, which could lead to loss of livelihoods of the poor in the Himalayan ecosystem of Uttarakhand. A variety of data and methodologies are used in the study, which include vulnerability assessment by observing indicators, sustainable livelihood approaches, IPCC projections of climate (4th Assessment Report); Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) Approach and public consultation with multistakeholders.
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India
Methodology Development for Climate Change Adaptation
IRADe has developed a methodology for climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation on various components of city infrastructure. It involves city infrastructure assessment and adaptation strategy that includes sustainable management of water, adequate storm water drainage capacity, effective solid waste disposal and public health measures. Climate resilience requires sound urban design.
Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India
Socio-economic Vulnerability of Himachal Pradesh to Climate Change
The state of Himachal Pradesh is vulnerable to climate change due to its geo-ecological location. The study develops methods to determine impact of climate variability. It assesses the impact of climate change and variability on agriculture and forests. Vulnerability assessment was done of agriculture and forest resources at different time scales, taking into account economic activities in future. It shows socio-economic vulnerability of livelihood because of impact of climate change on natural resources, like shift of apple belt, increased forest fires, changes in non-timber forest products, rice-growing areas, etc.
Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India
Developing Economy-wide Model for Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth (LCSIG)
The Expert Group on Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth (LCSIG) appointed by the Planning Commission had submitted its interim report in 2011. It provided low carbon technology alternatives for key energy-intensive sectors in India. But the assessment of these technologies at macro-economic level was not done. IRADe developed IRADe-LCSIG model to assess the impacts on growth rate, carbon emissions and energy and emission intensities of various low carbon measures. The results were reflected in the final report of the Expert Group. It was found that India can reduce emission intensity by 25 per cent by 2022, but it would involve some loss of GDP.
Planning Commission, Government of India
Climate Negotiations from Indian Perspective
An international agreement will have to decide on principles of deciding which country should do what. The UNFCCC division of countries as annex I countries and non-annex I countries is no longer viable as many non-annex I countries have developed and have high levels of GHG emissions. International comparisons of emissions, mitigation efforts, energy efficiency and emission quotas were done to outline a number of alternative paradigms.
Four approaches were proposed in this report:
1. A three-tier approach, differentiating higher and lower emitters among the non-Annexure I parties
2. Sectoral approach where emission targets are set for sectors
3. Carbon dioxide intensity (of GDP) approach to differentiate countries as shown in the figure.
4. Focus on adaptation.
Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India
Critical Evaluation of the 12th Five Year Plan from a Climatic Perspective
IRADe carried out critical evaluation of the Twelfth Five Year Plan (GOI 2012) which focuses on faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth from a climatic perspective. The plan states that ‘No development process can afford to neglect the environmental consequences of economic activity, or allow unsustainable depletion and deterioration of natural resources’.
Climate change has been explicitly addressed in India’s 12th Five Year Plan. The plan document incorporates a chapter on sustainable development which outlines the required policy measures for
LCSIG and focuses on a number of mitigation measures. Specific measures are proposed for transport sector, energy efficiency in industries and commercial buildings, and water use efficiency in agriculture. A green technology firm is also proposed to promote green products, waste management and recycling.
ICRIER ‘The New Climate Economy Project’.
First Biennial Update Report to UNFCCC: Updation of Information on Mitigation Actions for National Circumstances
The study provides an update on national circumstances explained in the second national communication in the Biennial Update Report (BUR). The broad scope of the study was to compile information on national circumstances, including climate, natural resources, agriculture and livestock, natural disaster, demographic profile, households, governance profile, economic profile, energy profile, power sector, transport, reforms and greenhouse gas emissions, low carbon strategy and India’s commitment to climate change and sustainable development.
The report pointed out that India enacted the Energy Conservation Act, 2010 for efficient use of energy and its conservation. To improve energy efficiency of the coal-based power plants and reduce the GHG emissions, it was decided that new thermal power plants should be based on super critical technology. India has also levied cesses on coal, petrol and diesel to fund green technology.
Inspire Network for Environment, NATCOM
Environment: Natural Resource Accounting (NRA)
Natural Resource Accounting in Goa,Phase II, under SEEA Framework
IRADe did the Natural Resource Accounting for three sectors: (1) Tourism; (2) Solid waste generation
from municipal waste; and (3) Water pollution by industries, using the United Nation’s System of Economic and Environmental Accounting (SEEA) framework. Physical and monetary accounts for these sectors were prepared.
When the value of environmental degradation due to tourism and municipal waste is taken into account Goa’s net state domestic product (SNDP) goes down by 6 per cent but due to afforestation the gain is also 6 per cent and so overall Goa’s SNDP remains nearly unaffected.
Central Statistical Organization, Government of India
Measuring Ecosystem Services for Green India Mission: A Case Study of Paderu Project in Andhra Pradesh
Green India Mission (GIM) is one of the eight missions of the climate action plan. IRADe conducted primary field survey with the forest department of Paderu Division in Visakhapatnam District to highlight the dependence of local communities on ecosystem services and how they currently benefit from them.Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are critically important to local forest users as a primary, supplementary or emergency source of income and were found to contribute an estimated average of 19 per cent of a household’s cash annual income. While Tendu leaves generated income for many more people, honey gave higher total income to only a select few. Furthermore, 27 per cent households of the study area were found to receive at least some income from the collection, processing and selling of NTFPs, majority of whom were poor to extremely poor.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
Ecosystem Management of Marine National Park, Jamnagar, Gujarat
Rapid industrial development in Jamnagar had its impact on the marine national park. The project studied the overall potential threats, formulated a conservation and management plan consistent with stakeholders’ plans and suggested an implementation plan through a blend of economic instruments and control measures in order to protect the marine life, unique corals and mangrove ecosystem. Assessments were carried out for various potential impacts from different sources in the park areas on marine ecosystem and critical pollution sources such as industries, ports and shipping activities on the marine national park. Simultaneously, the prospect of developing an ecotourism corridor in the marine national park and the nearby Khijadia Bird Sanctuary was investigated. The project brought together the stakeholders ranging from government officials, representatives of industries, officers of the municipality, NGOs, academics and the private sector.
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India
Pre-feasibility Study of Integrated Waste Management and Landfill Gas Recovery and Utilization at Puducherry
An assessment of the potential for LFG utilization was carried out for a Puducherry landfill. The study was based on information provided by the Puducherry Pollution Control Committee and Puducherry Municipality and observations made during the site visit. The model results indicated that various constraints are likely to limit future LFG recovery to a maximum of 22.8 cubic meters per hour.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
ENVISION – Information System Reforms at the Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2006–07
The key objective of ‘ENVISION’ was to use information technology to transform the functioning of the MoEF and the various constituent organizations under its purview with a business process perspective and also to transform the means of rendering services to its various stakeholders. IRADe was hired as the domain expert in the team of Price waterhouse Coopers (PwC). IRADe suggested steps for faster delivery, which the MoEF has already implemented.
Price waterhouse Coopers (PwC); Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
Supporting National Study on the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB – India Initiative)
‘Economic value of ecosystem services and biodiversity are used to enhance effectiveness of conservation and management of three priority ecosystems, namely forests, inland wetlands and coastal and marine ecosystems.
GIZ in partnership with the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is implementing a technical cooperation project ‘Incentives for sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystem services’. Under this initiative, about 12 field-based primary case studies on valuation of ecosystem services in forests, inland wetlands and coastal and marine ecosystems had been undertaken. To support a national study on The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB-India), IRADe is doing extensive literature survey to assess the existing knowledge and studies on valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
IRADe is also providing support to the Scientific and Technical Advisory Group (STAG) for preparing an overall structure/wireframe of TEEB-India report in addition to providing support to review and shortlist case study concept notes to present to the project’s scientific and technical advisory group (STAG).
GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit